Although Sri Lanka is a richly biodiverse island and is accordingly famed for its wildlife abundance, its varied eco-systems spread throughout the island, two land mammals in particular have achieved an iconic status. They are the elephant and the leopard. Of the two, elephants by far are the only animals associated with the island and its long cultural history. Leopards on the other hand have only recently attained popularity and is possibly the most sought after wild animal by both foreign visitors as well as locals who visit wilderness areas. The leopards late popularity is due to its elusive nature, its unwarranted reputation as a dangerous animal and the paucity of knowledge regarding leopards until the 21st century.